Why monsters and art are good for you

This weekend I attended the Nuart Aberdeen 2018 festival. Nuart is a street art festival originating in Stavanger and brings together internationally renowned artists to transform city spaces. For the next few years, the festival will take place in Aberdeen and has already brought a fabulous splash of colour to the granite city.

I was delighted this year to see that the 2018 festival had embraced the supernatural in it’s street art, and I found myself wondering around Aberdeen on the hunt for supernatural critters. It also reminded me how prevalent the supernatural is in our contemporary lives, and reaffirmed the importance of being a researcher in this area. Here is why…

The supernatural is fun…

One of my favourite moments as we walked around Nuart was the ‘Chalk Don’t Chalk Monster Workshop’ (by artist Bortusk Leer). As we climbed the steps to the Rooftop Gardens we emerged into a world of googly-eyed, spindly-armed, multiple coloured monsters – and you couldn’t help but smile!

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Families were taking part in the workshop with kids drawing their own versions of monsters with chalk on the ground. They were equally as weird and wonderful as the ones created by the artist, and you couldn’t help but imagine what your own monster would look like. Monsters here were a fun and exciting was to engage kids (and grown ups!) with art, and to encourage imagination and creativity.

 

The supernatural tells a story…

As we walked around the city it was clear that the supernatural was used in some of the artwork to communicate a message or tell a story. Perhaps most prominently was a piece by artist Bordalo II who designs large-scale public sculptures of animals out of materials that contribute towards their extinction or environmental degradation. For Nuart in Aberdeen the sculpture was a Unicorn.

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I was talking to my husband over lunch after we had toured the city and we were discussing this particular piece of art. We read in the brochure about the political message behind the materials used and both initially commented on the existence of Unicorns in the first place. However, it was not until later as I thought more about it that I realised that this was probably the point. If we continue to destroy the environment by using and disposing of these materials these animals will become just as mythical as the Unicorn itself.

Art and the supernatural, therefore, has the potential to communicate interesting and important messages.

The supernatural is part of our past and present…

I was impressed to see that one of the artworks told the history of the witch trials in Aberdeen. The artwork had a fabulous title “We are the granddaughters, all of the witches you were never able to burn” (by artist Carrie Reichard). As well as telling the history of witchcraft accusations and burnings in the city, which resulted in the death of 30 people in Aberdeen and up to 3800 across Scotland (mainly older women), it did something more.

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Next to the history of witch trials in Aberdeen was a mosaic of famous and inspirational women from the city. There was a clear message, and the supernatural featured in this story of empowerment and change from the past to the present.

Art and the supernatural worked together at the Nuart festival to inspire, enchant and talk to people. And perhaps that is why we continue to embrace the supernatural in our contemporary lives, because it allows us to see, experience and interpret the world in more extraordinary and meaningful ways.

And my favourite piece from the festival…

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Orkney: Stepping back in time with ghosts…

I was fortunate enough last week to travel to Orkney as part of a student trip. This was my first trip to Orkney, and spending my teenager years growing up on the Isle of Skye I was looking forward to returning to island living and ‘island time’ for a few days. Last year, I visited Skye for the first time in several years and was shocked to see the impact of increased tourism. In particular, I was concerned to see how the commercialisation of folklore around sites like the Fairy Glen had been leading to the degradation of the natural environment. I was, therefore, interested to see if Orkney was experiencing similar problems.

In the last few years Orkney has become a very popular destination for cruise ships. This has resulted in a seasonal influx of large tourist numbers coming off the cruise ships to explore the island each day in the summer months. From discussions with some of the Orcadians during our trip these visitor numbers had brought positive economic benefits to the community. However, inevitably large tourist numbers entering the island was also causing issues in terms of pressurised infrastructure and degradation to historic sites. The community is, therefore, currently looking to adapt its tourism offerings to ensure a sustainable approach to welcoming tourists and sharing the ‘gems’ that Orkney has to offer, whilst preserving its heritage and natural environment. 

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As we explored Orkney we had the privilege of meeting a number of individuals who shared their stories and experiences of living on the island. We also had the opportunity to hear some of the fabulous folklore and ghost stories that Orkney has to offer – which are in abundance! Unlike Skye, the stories we discovered where not offered as a commercialised package but came from the personal stories that had been passed down through the years. There was something authentic, exciting and precious about these encounters which made you feel like you were hearing them for the first time. The ghosts stories we heard also provided the opportunity to learn about Orkney and its community in different ways: 

  1. Ghost stories enabled us to discover Orkney’s people. We were very privileged to visit Skaill House out of season and hear some of its ghost stories. skaillhouseWe learnt about the wife of one of the laird’s whose ghost is said to reside upstairs. She appears to get frustrated when the staff tidy up too early in the morning, showing her displeasure by banging on the floor. We also learnt about the son of one of the Lairds who was tragically killed in an accident involving his horse. The boys picture can be found in the house, and it is said that he is responsible for the rocking horse moving on its own. A polite ghostly gentlemen has also been seen in one of the exhibition rooms and has been known to answer visitor questions – only for them to later learn that he was not really ‘there’! Through these stories we learnt a lot about the former residents of Skaill House, their personalities, what they liked to do and their relationships with each other.skaill2
  2. Ghost stories also helped us to see Orkney in different ways.  As well as learning about some of the personal stories of Skaill House, we also learnt more about its location. The house is built upon a Norse graveyard and is situated just along from Skara Brae, illustrating the significant age of the land and how its use has changed through the years.  We also learnt about ghostly footsteps that are heard in the Orkney Museum, often at lunchtime. We had not heard of the museum being haunted until these stories were told, and suddenly the age and former use of the building as a family home was brought to life. These stories added layers to the sites we visited, allowing us to see them in different and more complex ways.  skarabrae
  3. Ghost stories allowed us to step back in time. By learning about the personal stories of the people of Orkney, and how the places had changed and evolved through the years we were able to experience the temporal dimensions of the island. These stories paint a picture of how things were, the ways they were experienced and the people that played a role in these past events. 

The ghosts stories of Orkney provided a unique way of seeing the island and appreciating its heritage. Beyond its ghosts Orkney also has a rich history of folklore, many of which can be read in Tom Muir’s Orkney Folk Tales. These stories have the unique quality of giving life and context to places that are not necessarily ‘tourism hotspots’. As such there may be an opportunity here to use Orkney’s folklore and ghostly tales to develop alternative forms of tourism to help alleviate pressure on popular destinations. 

There is, however, a lesson to be learnt from Skye and the ways that folklore have been commercialised. Orkney offered us an authentic glimpse into its heritage through ghost stories, and this felt important not just as a visitor but for the people we spoke to. Stories may be an interesting way to share Orkney’s heritage in different ways, but how these are developed and offered will need careful consideration to ensure the people, place and past associated with them is represented in authentic and sustainable ways. 

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Why host a conference on the supernatural in contemporary society?

On 23rd and 24th August 2018, we will be hosting a new conference called, Supernatural in Contemporary Society (SCSC). The conference will be held at Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, and aims to provide a platform to discuss the continuing role of the supernatural, and its value to culture, heritage and tourism. I am hugely excited to host the conference and we have two excellent key note speakers lined up – Dr David Clarke and Professor Dennis Waskul. However, why host such a conference? And why focus on contemporary issues?

The inspiration to host SCSC came predominantly from the fascinating body of research that exists out there on the supernatural in a range of contexts. I have, however, often found it difficult with my own research to find a ‘home’ for it. There are obvious homes for research in the realms of parapsychology with conferences such as the Annual Convention of Parapsychological Association or the SPR Annual Conference. There are also some fascinating projects and conferences available for those that explore the supernatural in the realms of literature and folklore – see for instance the excellent conferences hosted this year as part of the Supernatural Cities and the Open Graves, Open Minds projects. Networks such as Exploring the Extraordinary have also provided opportunities to explore extraordinary experiences in a range of subject areas. However, there is not a clear home for research that explores the supernatural in everyday contexts such as tourism, events, heritage, media, and as a profession. Additionally, there seemed to be an opportunity to host a conference that could explore links between subject areas and potentially promote cross-disciplinary working. After recently writing a chapter for a new book, The Supernatural in Society, Culture and History (by Dennis Waskul and Marc Eaton), it became clear that there was value to be had in making these links across research topics. As such, a conference that invites research from a range of scholars has the potential to provide interesting insights and opportunities for future research directions.

The supernatural also continues to be a prominent feature in our modern world. However, we are often focused on ‘why’ this is rather than considering the value and impact it may have. Looking at contemporary issues of the supernatural in everyday society may allow us to explore these issues further. In addition to academic papers, the conference will also invite short case study presentations and posters from industry, and host an industry workshop with heritage organisations to consider the value and impact of the supernatural for tourism. Heritage organisations are increasingly using ghostly stories and supernatural legends to promote their sites . For instance, the recently opened Peterhead Prison is already hosting overnight ghost hunts and ghost walks, and the National Trust regularly promote their ghosts to attract visitors. A conference that focuses on contemporary contexts (such as heritage), explores links between research and industry, and is forward thinking in terms of future research and projects, should be beneficial for scholars, organisations and those with a general interest in the topic.

SCSC therefore intends to provide a platform for sharing research across disciplines, exploring areas for new research directions and developing networks for academic and applied projects, and discovering what the value and impact of the supernatural is within contemporary society. If you have an interest in the supernatural, have research you would like to share or have case study examples to discuss with our delegates we would be delighted to see you there!

You can find out more about the conference and the Call for Papers here – http://www.rgu.ac.uk/scsc

You can also follow us on our Twitter (@SCSC2018) and Facebook.

 

 

 

8 Tips for Talking Ghosts: The Media

Ghosts don’t frighten me…but the media does!

Today I attended a workshop run by Women in Journalism Scotland who do some excellent work training, mentoring and encouraging women in the media. I took part not because I am a journalist but because if I’m honest the media makes me a little nervous. My nerves are not necessarily about appearing on camera, giving an interview on air or being quoted in an article, I have done some of those things before. You see what unnerves me is the context…my area of expertise is the paranormal, and that comes with baggage!

It’s a hugely frustrating piece of baggage (the kind where you take your holdall and after hours of lugging it around train stations and airports wish you had purchased a wheely bag…but also kind of know that a wheely bag doesn’t get you to the same exciting places as one you can carry, adventure-like, on your shoulder…). Its frustrating because I know I am knowledgeable in my field, I have been involved in the area for over 10 years and received a PhD in the topic. I also know that there are some really interesting and engaging conversations to have and although I am comfortable talking to peers, colleagues and my students about it I still find myself  nervous of having such conversations through the media. The paranormal unfortunately is a topic ‘haunted’ by its past, and current popularisation. It has a history of sensationalised cases that have hit the media and then turned out to be either fake or misunderstood. In recent years the rise of paranormal TV, film and representation on social media has left its scars and the paranormal has found its place in entertainment rather than perceived as a serious topic of research. The question of “is it real?” and “do you believe?” has dominated debate and opinion, and those who research the area are often considered ghostbusters regardless of their focus. It’s credibility as a discipline is, perhaps understandably, sometimes questioned.

This is a shame. There are some fascinating studies that explore the Supernatural and it’s role in our society beyond questions of belief or existence (not that these are bad questions!). However, I fear that like myself some people will be nervous about sharing this research with the public through the media. I am an academic, and I understand that whatever opinion I give or research I share reflects on my academic credibility, as well as the University I represent. I am nervous that the newspaper headline will read Ghostbuster Lecturer…or an interview will be accompanied by spooky sound effects in the background…the usual clichés. However, after attending the event today I have realised something – the only way to tackle this issue is for experts in this area to lead the way and shape the conversation.

I raised my concerns at the event today to a panel of journalists and explained my area of expertise and why I was concerned. It was lovely to see the excitement that this kind of topic brings when people hear that the paranormal is your area of study – I encounter it quite a lot and this is positive! They sympathised with my plight but also provided some good tips (for both this topic and more generally) that I thought would be useful to share. This advice is from industry professionals working in the media and journalism, and whilst I am yet to try these out, I hope they will be useful for others considering sharing their research.

8 Tips for Talking Ghosts (or indeed anything else…)

1. Do your research into the publication/ media outlet. Tabloids are likely to sensationalise and there may be specific media outlets that work with your topic (for instance my research into haunted heritage may receive a better write up with someone like BBC History).

2. Be honest and communicate the parameters you would like to talk within. If you are not comfortable talking about an area raise this in advance, a good journalist will adhere to this. This it seems is particularly important in the paranormal world – I often find that everyone assumes you are a parapsychologist in the field, and often ask psychology based questions, even if this is not your area of study.

3. Ask for either the questions or general ‘jist’ of the interview in advance. Again, most journalists should at least be able to give you a feel for the direction of the interview.

4. Prepare. Particularly think of any challenging questions that could be asked and how you will respond.

5. Don’t feel that you have to answer everything. If you are unsure be honest and explain in the interview that this is not your area of expertise.

6. Think about what the key message is you want to communicate and make sure you get this across. Interviews may be short or cut off quickly so you want to get your ‘sound bite’ in when you can.

7. You can say no. If your not comfortable doing the interview or with the outlet it will be published in you can say no, other opportunities are likely to arise.

8. Be proactive. If you want to be a spokesperson for your area of research seek out opportunities in places you would like your voice to be heard.

I hope these tips are useful. I certainly found the sessions helpful, and will be using this advice in the future if media opportunities arise. Please do feel free to discuss any experiences you have had with the media and paranormal below, or indeed share your own advice on the topic.

 

Collective Paranormal Experiences – noticing ghosts together

In my earlier post, I discussed the need to examine paranormal experiences from a social perspective. This post is the first of three which will discuss the findings from my doctoral research, exploring social interaction and paranormal events in the context of paranormal groups. In this first section, I would like to discuss how paranormal events become noticed by more than one person, and as such become part of a wider group experience.

The findings from my doctoral research are based upon a research method called Conversation Analysis. This allows the detailed analysis of interaction – most usually conversation – with a focus on the discovery of processes and patterns within everyday conversation. For the purpose of my research I was keen to use this method to examine the interaction between individuals as they take part in paranormal investigations, and more specifically when they report an experience taking place. As such, I adopted this method to examine video data of groups having experiences. One of the advantages of this approach is it provides the opportunity to break down social interaction (such as conversation, actions, movements) by transcribing the activities taking place. It provides an in-depth insight into what people do and when.

I trawled through over one hundred hours of video data to find cases when paranormal groups reported an experience taking place, and then transcribed what was going on, moment by moment. It provided a fascinating perspective into what happens during a paranormal event between the people that are experiencing it. As I did this, I started to notice patterns in the way that unusual events were noticed and shared.

What is that?

As I examined the transcripts of data, a regular word emerged each time an experience was noticed – “that”. This was particularly prevalent when an unusual event occurred in the external environment, such as a sound or vision (‘feelings’ are slighting different and I will examine these in a later blog). And “that” was always posed as a question. For example, in one instance a scratching noise can be heard, as this happens the group look towards a space in the room and one of them says, “what was that?”. In another example, a popping sound is heard, and the first reaction to the sound is “what’s that?”. Sometimes the reaction to an event would be upgraded, demonstrating shock and surprise at the encounter, “what the hell is that?” and “what the fuck is that?” to name a couple of instances.

Whilst initially the posing of a “that” question seems fairly mundane it is interesting to thatnote the choice of the word ‘that’ rather than a description of the event taking place. Individuals did not say “did you see a ghost standing in the corner”, “did you hear a breath”, “did you hear a man speaking”, at least in the first instance of noticing and announcing this to the group. This is interesting because ‘that’ carries with it certain characteristics. Firstly, it is a demonstrative (i.e. we use it to demonstrate certain things in the environment – i.e. look at that flower). Secondly, it is also an ambiguous term unless accompanied by the thing we are describing. As such, by leaving ‘that’ on its own we invite others to discover what ‘that’ might be with us. Thirdly, and leading on from this point, ‘that’ in certain contexts is a special type of demonstrative because it has the potential to imply transgressive qualities to an event. Think for instance about what you might say if you saw something quite disgusting on the floor, your reaction may be “urghh, what is that?”. It is often used then to point out things in the environment that are unexpected or unusual in form.

In the context of paranormal groups, a “that” question following an event in the environment does a number of things. It communicates to the group that someone has noticed something in the environment, that it may be unusual or transgressive in nature, and by posing the question invites others to discover what it may be. This is important in our understanding of paranormal events because it indicates that individuals do not immediately identify an experience and then communicate this to others, but invite the discovery of these events collectively. By using the term ‘that’ the event, regardless of what it might be, is also poised from the beginning as having potentially unusual characteristics. Therefore, from the first noticing of an event the group are invited to discover it’s unusual potential.

The “that” question appears to be an important starting point in the formation of collective paranormal experiences. As I examine further in the paper “The transgressive that: Making the world uncanny”, this is not only evident in ghostly encounters but collective UFO sightings also. In the next blog, I will go further to discuss how a group progress from ‘that’ to identifying an event as paranormal in nature. Until then I encourage you to listen out for “that” questions when you next watch a paranormal show or see a collective experience taking place – you will notice just how frequent they are. A warning though, as I have found in my own research, once you notice “that” it is difficult not to, in some respects it quite literally haunts you…

 

 

 

 

Collective Paranormal Experiences

There are numerous explanations and theories regarding why paranormal experiences occur, and what they may be. Believers in the supernatural may argue that experiences are evidence of the existence of ghosts and the otherworldly. Skeptics, on the other hand, may explain such phenomena away as the result of environmental and psychological influences, perhaps even fraud or simply the ‘need’ to believe in something. Regardless of these debates, paranormal experiences are still a prevalent part of our human and indeed, social, experience.

Over the last six years my interest has been in the ‘social’ element of such experiences. It all started with an encounter of my own, and a subsequent interest in understanding collective experiences:

When I was a student I took part in paranormal investigations as part of a local group in Aberdeen. During one investigation we were spending the night in the local Tolbooth (an old Scottish jail). We had split into teams to investigate the building and I was sat with a fellow investigator in one of the old cells – the rest of the team were located in other parts of the building. I vividly remember that we were sitting eating some biscuits that we had bought on the investigation to keep us going through the night. We were taking a break – by this point it was in the early hours of the morning – and not actively ‘looking’ for anything. As we sat there, I started to notice what looked like a shape standing in the doorway to the other room. At first I thought it was just my imagination, and although I could see it, I was aware that it was not like seeing it with my eyes – almost like a vision overlaying reality. This ‘vision’ became clearer to the point where I could see a man standing in the doorway, dressed in old, quite ragged looking clothing. The experience was not at all scary, and did not even feel particularly real. My initial thought was that I was just tired. That was until my fellow investigator said, “can you see that?”. I proceeded to ask her what she could see, and her reply astounded me, “it looks like a man standing in the doorway”. I replied, “yes”, and asked her what she could see. Between us we both described exactly the same figure. After a short while the vision seemed to dissipate and we were both left puzzled by the encounter. Had we both just seen a ghost? Or somehow shared the exact same vision between us? 

I have had a number of paranormal experiences, I guess one of the reasons that I became interested in researching this area. Looking back I am fairly sure that many of these could be explained by rational causes, however, this one always fascinated me. It also became a significant experience for me because I had shared it with someone else, and therefore it felt more ‘real’.

As I continued my research in this area and started my doctoral research it became clear that social confirmation of paranormal experiences is an important component in our understanding of them. Collective experiences have formed part of our spiritual and social history for a long time, and even in this modern day we seek confirmation of such encounters together – consider for instance the significant rise of paranormal and ghost hunting groups. Given the nature of paranormal experiences, and the ontological questions that surround them, collective experiences also provide an affirmation to such events. If more than one person is involved in experiencing the ghost, it has the potential to negate the psychological component – i.e. “it was not just my imagination, because Sue saw it too”. This is not to say that having a collective experience proves the existence of ghosts, and the argument for environmental or collective psychological influences still remains. However, investigating how we come to see and understand paranormal events together can offer some interesting insights into the ways that the paranormal is experienced.

In my thesis, I address collective experiences in the context of paranormal groups. I appreciate, however, that this is a fairly chunky piece of bed time reading and as such over the next few blogs posts my aim is to explain these findings. In doing so, I will discuss how we come to notice paranormal events, discover them and ‘feel’ them collectively.

 

Seeing heaven – extraordinary experiences at 5895m!

On Sunday 16th July 2017 at 6.55am I summited Kilimanjaro with Mo, my mother-in-law. It had been the accumulation of 2 years of planning and preparation, walking plentiful Munros across Scotland, going to the gym several times a week, and talking LOTS about what it might be like to climb the highest peak in Africa. It took us 7 days along the Lemosho route to reach the summit, and another 1 day to descend. It was a significant challenge, but also an extraordinary and beautiful journey!

Needless to say climbing Kilimanjaro was far removed from my normal day-to-day routine which is, to be fair, pretty ‘kushti’, and certainly does not require much thought about oxygen levels, heart rate and where to go to the toilet (which turned out to be daily concerns on the mountain!).  It was also a completely different environment, nestled in the heart of Africa yet the ascent took us through four completely different climates – from the thick jungle to barren desert, from mid 20C to -15C degrees. It was a physical and most certainly, mental, challenge.

Day 3 O

Now that I am back at sea level and have had some time to consider the journey, I thought it would be interesting to reflect on a side of climbing Kilimanjaro that I have been able to find little written about since I returned. This being the ‘extraordinary’, and what some may consider ‘spiritual’ experiences, encountered on the mountain. Whilst I do not align myself to a particular religion, there were moments when the beauty and immensity of the journey probed at deeper philosophical and spiritual questions. I found this particularly valuable at a personal level, but it also made me consider the role that these experiences play in a broader society that in many ways strips us of these moments for philosophical and deeper thought. Perhaps finding these moments is what makes touristic experiences such as climbing Kilimanjaro so popular in our modern Western world…

During our 8 day journey there were numerous moments of reflection, and I guess the fairly long days of walking (usually single file), focusing on getting to the next camp, fostered this. However, there were a few defining points along the way that made a deeper connection more pronounced. Firstly, the environment was phenomenally beautiful. At night the stars stretched vastly across the sky and as we neared the latter part of our trip the Milky Way appeared brighter and deeper. One evening, myself and one of our group, Rob, stood and stared at the stars for what must have been half an hour. This combined with the silhouette of Kilimanjaro as a backdrop and the lights of Moshi in the distance made for a truly stunning scene and a real sense of ‘smallness’ in the immensity of the Universe. Day 2 Z24We were also above the clouds. The beauty of this took me by surprise, and even now when showing people the photos, I can’t stop pointing out the carpet of clouds laid out below us! Whilst not religious, I had grown up with the socially constructed image of what heaven would be in my mind, and this was it – I was seeing heaven. Day 5 Baranco 16Secondly, the physical challenge and effects of altitude impacted people differently. For me, altitude did not effect me in the way I expected – most usually headaches and nausea – instead I could not sleep….for three days! By day four I was utterly exhausted, and had begun to have some rather trippy visions. To try and help me sleep I had started to meditate and on the third night had experienced a vision of a floating head of a bearded tribesman hovering over me! It was incredibly clear and difficult to shake, leaving me wondering the next day what it might mean…fortunately Mo, was carrying some Diazepam, and I managed to knock myself out for the following four nights! Although I am not one for usually taking pills, without these I am sure I would have either run out of energy or gone slightly loopy! Finally, summit night was perhaps the most physically challenging but also mentally exhausting experience of the trip (and indeed of my life so far!) . We arose at 10pm after very little sleep to start our ascent at 11pm. Not only was this surreal, but trekking at night in the cold and dark with nothing but a head lamp and the feet in front of you is somewhat of an assault on the senses! However, even in what was a fairly gruelling 8 hour trek to the top there were some truly wonderful moments. I saw my first ever moonrise over Mawenzie Peak, a stunning golden glow emerging over the cloud lined tops of Kilimanjaro’s second highest point. About two hours from the summit as I lifted my head to look towards the top where I could now see head torches disappearing, I also saw the most amazing shooting star. It literally appeared for the few seconds that I took to look towards the summit and shot across the sky in the direction we were heading. At that point in time, I don’t know why, but I knew we were going to make it.

We arrived at Stella Point, the first stage of the summit, as the sun started to rise. We walked for a short while longer before stopping, having a seat and some cold tea. We watched as the golden glow of the sun appeared over the top of the clouds, the glow somewhat more beautiful as it was the first warmth we had felt in 8 hours of climbing.NOVATEK CAMERA

At this point I knew why there were stories of people finding God at the top of Kilimanjaro. Indeed the Chagga people believe that the underworld can be accessed at this point where the sky and the earth meet. According to this belief you may find heavenly paradise, or the gateway to the “ghosts”, depending on which gateway you pursue.

For me, I did not find God or indeed a gateway to another world. However, I did feel an extraordinary connection to the world at that point and the beautiful immensity of it all – so much so that my first reaction on reaching Uruhu peak was to cry. I had seen heaven at the top of Kilimanjaro but not in the divine sense – instead heaven appeared to me as a window into the breath-taking beauty of our world and the extraordinary possibilities that we have to experience it.

Day 7 Summit M

Day 7 Summit V